Menocal, Maria Rosa , “Culture in the Time of Tolerance: Al-Andalus as a Model for Our Time” (2000). Occasional Papers. Paper 1.
The Muslims of al-Andalus were ethnically diverse. Most soldiers were first-generation immigrants, and were very similar to their Christian and Jewish subjects. The culture itself was accepting of all sorts of contradictions within its religion and its people, allowing for the integration of different cultures (specifically Jewish culture) into their traditions.
This allowed for Jewish tradition to flourish within the Arabic empire, holding important offices and creating a second Jewish Golden Age.